PUBLICATION NORMS

Acceptable formats:

Articles accepted for publication in the Revista de Historia Económica must be submitted via http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/rhe-jilaeh in Word format in the case of text and Word or Excel format for tables and figures.

In the interests of quality of printing, Excel is recommended for figures and maps, together with a copy of the original page. Other formats may be used in exceptional cases although this would make it impossible to guarantee high quality and are, therefore, not recommended.

Typeface and size:

The only acceptable typeface is Times New Roman, point 12 for the main text and 10 for footnotes and bibliography. Single spacing must be used. No exceptions will be admitted.

Ordering of articles:

  1. Title. To be written in capital letters justified to the left (only). If a footnote with acknowledgments is to be included, it should be indicated by an asterisk located at the end of the title. Acknowledgments will never overcome 120 words.
  2. Author(s). In the case of one author, the name should be written in capital letters, justified to the right (only) and separated from the title by one blank line. The correct order is first name followed by surname(s). Below the name of the author and without leaving a line of separation, the name of the University or institution should appear, also justified to the right and in lower case except for initials. This should always be followed by a footnote indicated by the lower case letter ‘a’. This note should contain the name of the department to which the author belongs followed by the address of the institution. In the same footnote the e-mail address of the author should follow the postal address. When the article has more than one author, their names, in capital letters, and universities should be listed one below the other with a blank line between each. If several authors belong to the same university, the footnote should include the address of the institution and the e-mail addresses of the authors. If the authors do not come from the same university, separate footnotes numbered ‘a’, ‘b’, etc. should be included.
  3. Abstracts in Spanish and English. This order should be respected and they should be on the same page as the information about the authors following a gap of several blank lines.The abstract in Spanish should come first and be headed by the word ‘RESUMEN’ (in bold capital letters) and centred. The summary itself should follow and be separated from the heading by one blank line. Normal typeface should be used and the abstract should not exceed ten lines (or 120 words). The first line should be indented four spaces (0.8 cm). At the end of the abstract, after one more blank line, the words ‘Palabras clave:’ should be written —in bold and using the same indentation— followed by a maximum of six words separated by commas and with no full stop after the last one.The abstract in English should be preceded by two blank lines. The heading should be the term ‘ABSTRACT’, and the same norms as applied to the abstract in Spanish should be applied. The keywords should be introduced by the term ‘Keywords:’. The term ‘JEL Classification:’ should be written on the next line using the previously described indentation and the corresponding codes, separated by commas and with no full stop after the last one, should be included (see http://www.aeaweb.org/journal/jel_class_system.html for JEL codes).
  4. The text of the article, preceded by three blank lines, should come next. The norms regarding the margins to be used (left and right) will be described later. All footnotes will be included at the end of each page. Tables and figures should be included in the appropriate places in the text, always between two paragraphs and preceded and followed by a blank line. They can also be attached in one separate file.
  5. Any references to sources should be included at the end of the main text under the heading ‘REFERENCES’, in capital letters using a normal typeface justified to the left and separated from the text by two blank lines and from the list of references themselves by one blank line.
  6. The BIBLIOGRAPHY, under this heading, should follow the references, or the text itself in the absence of references. The norms regarding font, justification and spaces for the previous section, references, should also be applied here. The norms regarding the content of the bibliography will be described later.
  7. A maximum of one statistical appendix may accompany the article. In this case the appendix should follow the bibliography on one or more separate pages. The correct heading is ‘APPENDIX’ (using a normal typeface, capital letters and justified to the left) and the tables and figures should be numbered as ‘FIGURE-X’ or ‘TABLE A-X’. The publication norms for figures and tables described later should be applied.

Structure of the text:

The text should be organized into sections which should be numbered in correlative order using Arabic numerals followed by a full stop and one space. Each number will be followed by the title of the section in capital letters and no full stop. Lines containing the number and title of a section should respect both left and right margins, should not be indented and should be separated from the end of the previous section by three blank lines and followed by one. References to sections of the text will be made simply as “section 1”, “section 2”, etc.

The contents of each section may be divided into subsections if desired. In this case each section would be numbered as follows: 1.1. (…) 1.n. ; 2.1. (…) 2.n. This number should be followed by the title of the subsection using lower case bold typeface (except for the first letter which should be written in capitals). Lines containing the number and title of a subsection should be separated from the end of the previous text by two blank lines and followed by one. Such subsections should be referred to in the text as “subsection 1.1”, “subsection 1.2”, etc.

A text structure consisting of three levels is acceptable. In this case subsections would be subdivided into shorter parts whose titles should be written in italics without indentation or numbers. The system described above for separating titles and texts of subsections should also be applied here.

The first line of the paragraphs which constitute the various sections and subsections described above should be indented four spaces (0.8 cm). Blank lines should not be left between paragraphs.

Notes:

Footnotes at the end of a page, rather than endnotes, will be used. Such footnotes should be indicated by consecutive Arabic numerals as a superscript in ascending order. These numbers should be located at the end of the paragraph before the full stop. Point 10 should be used for footnotes which should be justified to both left and right. The first line should be indented four spaces. Abbreviated bibliographical references rather than the full form should be used in footnotes. For example, Vázquez (2000, pp. 322-325).

In order to reduce the number of footnotes, when reference is made to a work whose author is mentioned in the main body of the text, the short form of the reference —year and page— will be included in the text itself, in brackets and immediately after the name. For example, “[…] as shown by Taylor (1994, pp. 658-663), the most spectacular change […]”.

It should be clearly understood that this abbreviated reference system may only be used when the name of the author appears as part of the text of the article itself. The Revista does not accept the reference system which consists of including a name in brackets at the end of a paragraph. For example, “Spain’s national income grew more rapidly during this period than during the previous one (Fernández 1990)”. In our opinion this system is neither appropriate nor academic because: a) It does not make it possible to identify which statements are attributed to the author in question (all those made since the previous reference, only the last one or an additional one too), and b) It creates the impression that the authors in question are authorities whose statements admit no argument.

Regarding notes referring to tables, the norms described in the section dealing with tables should be observed.

Quotations:

Direct quotations should appear between quotation marks and, if they exceed three lines, should be separated from the main body of the text. Such quotations should be indented eight spaces on the left only. Any changes to the original quotation should be indicated by square brackets [  ]. The year of publication and the page number should be indicated for each quotation, either in a footnote or as part of the text itself respecting the system described in the section referring to Notes.

Accents:

Accents should be maintained even though the corresponding vowel or the entire word, in the case of a title, is written in capital letters.

Use of italics:

El texto vendrá escrito íntegramente en letra corriente. La cursiva se utilizará exclusivamente en los casos siguientes:

  • Para los títulos de libros o revistas: siempre, incluso cuando se les mencione en forma abreviada o por sus iniciales.
  • Para términos en idioma diferente al utilizado en el texto: siempre, incluidas las palabras en latín o en otras lenguas peninsulares.
  • Con carácter excepcional, cuando se quiera enfatizar una palabra. Para este propósito quedan excluidos otros recursos diferentes, tales como el subrayado del término o el empleo de mayúsculas.

Formulae:

Formulae may be incorporated into a paragraph or written on a separate line. The latter is recommended for complex formulae.

One blank line should be left both above and below any formula which is written on a separate line.

If equations are to be numbered, the numbers should appear in square brackets [ ] at the end of the line. References in the text to equations should be indicated by equation [x] or, simply, as [x].

Tables and figures:

A single system of consecutive Arabic characters should be used to number all tables and figures included in the text. If a statistical appendix is included, the tables and figures contained therein should be numbered separately following the instructions given above.

The first line of all tables and figures should consist simply of the corresponding number, ‘TABLE X’ or ‘FIGURE X’, in bold capital letters. This heading should always use Times New Roman point 12 and be centred.

The heading or title of the table or figure should follow, after one blank line. Capital letters and the same size and style of font should be used. This heading should be centred and can occupy as many lines as necessary. If the units referred to in the table or figure are specified in the heading, this information should be written on a separate line at the end of the title in lower case (except the first letter), in brackets and centred too. No full stop should follow the heading.

The table or figure itself should follow the heading, separated from it by one blank line.

A grid format should always be used for tables. Data should always be separated by horizontal and vertical lines and the table itself should be outlined. These lines are to be single and thin, although clearly visible, in all cases.

Wherever possible the same font size (12) as used in the text itself should also be used for data included in tables. If a lack of space makes this impossible, a smaller font size may be used although the largest possible size should always be used.

The headings of columns in tables should be written in bold. If the horizontal rows have headings, bold letters should also be used. In tables representing time series, dates are not to be considered as line headings. If there is a horizontal line of totals at the end of the table, bold typeface should be used.

The source or sources of the information should form part of each table or figure and appear below it, separated by one blank line. Point 10 should be used for the paragraph or paragraphs specifying the sources and the term ‘Sources’, in lower case (except for the first letter) and followed by a colon, should precede this text. This paragraph or paragraphs should be vertically aligned with both margins of the table or figure itself.

If notes are to be included in a table —for example, comments referring to information in the table—, they should be included below the source, separated by one blank line and using the heading ‘Notes’ followed by a colon. The notes themselves should follow this heading with at least one line being used for each one. If the number of notes is small, they are to be indicated by asterisks —single, double, triple and quadruple. Asterisks should also be used when the indication follows a formula. Lower case italic letters are recommended for large numbers of notes. Such indications should always be made in superscript format. The paragraph containing the notes should be aligned with the vertical margins of the table and indented.

When reference is made, either in the text or in the notes, to a particular table or figure, the correct form is to refer to Table x —using Arabic numerals— or Figure x, without repeating the heading.

References and Bibliography:

The relevant term should appear as a heading in both cases, in capital letters using point 12 normal typeface justified to the left. The list of references or publications itself, using point 10, should be preceded by one blank line.

Strict alphabetical order, based on authors’ surname in the case of the Bibliography, should be respected. Each item should be separated from the previous one by a full stop with each new item beginning on a fresh line. Each line, except the first line, should be indented four spaces (0.8 cm).

When a list of references is included and the documents consulted have an official title, this title should be used. The initials, in brackets, should follow the title and finally, the city where they are to be found.

The bibliographical list should include only works mentioned in the text and should include all such works.

Each entry in the bibliography should respect the following order:

  • Author or editor’s surname(s), followed by a comma and the initials of the first name, all in capital letters.In the case of a work with more than one author or editor, these should appear one after the other in the same order, separated by commas and, in the case of the last one, preceded by the conjunction ‘and’.If the number of authors or editors is large, the name of the first only may be written in which case it should be followed by the Latin term, et al. in italics.The names of editors, directors, coordinators or compilers will be indicated by the addition, after the name or list of names, of the expressions (ed.), (eds.), (dir.), (dirs.), (coord.), (coords.), (comp.) or (comps.) as appropriate. Such terms should always be enclosed in brackets and followed by a comma.If two or more works share exactly the same authors or editors, a (single) long hyphen will be used to replace the names as from the second reference.
  • Year of publication, in brackets and followed by a colon. If two or more works by the same author or authors published in the same year are mentioned, a letter will be used to distinguish between them. For example, Clark, G. (2000a). and Clark, G. (2004b):
  • The remaining elements of each bibliographical entry should respect the following system:
  • In the case of books, the full title of the book, in italics and followed by a full stop should appear next; the city of publication followed by a colon should come next, and finally the publisher’s name which should be followed by a full stop.

Examples:

MADDISON, A. (1995): Monitoring the World Economy 1820-1992. París: OECD.

CHENERY, H. y SYRQUIN, M. (1978): La estructura del crecimiento económico. Un análisis para el periodo 1950-1970. Madrid: Tecnos.

  • In the case of articles published in journals or newspapers, the title of the article should be written in normal typeface in quotation marks, followed by a full stop; the name of the publication, in italics followed by the volume, in normal typeface; optionally, in the case of journals which divide volumes into several issues, the issue number may be indicated, in brackets, after the volume number; finally, the first and last pages of the article, preceded by a comma, as follows: pp. 15-26.When the issues of a volume have independent page numbering systems, the system described above should always be used to indicate page numbers.In the case of publications which are not divided into annual volumes, the issue number will be indicated instead of the volume and the same norms will be followed. In the case of daily or weekly publications the date will be indicated.

Examples:

FOGEL, R. W. (1994): «Economic Growth, Population Theory, and Physiology: The Bearing of Long-Term Processes on the Making of Economic Policy». American Economic Review 84 (3), pp. 369-395.

ANES, G. (1984): «El sector agrario en la España moderna». Papeles de Economía Española 20, pp. 2-20.

  • Chapters of books should be referred to using the title of the chapter, in normal typeface in quotation marks, followed by a comma; this should be followed by the name of the author or the name of the editors or coordinators —if appropriate—, beginning with the initial of the first name, followed by the surname or surnames, ending with the expression (ed.), (eds.) etc., a comma should precede the title of the book in italics followed by a full stop; the place of publication should be followed by a colon; the name of the publisher, followed by a comma, the volume number, if that exists, and the first and last pages of the chapter as in the case of journals.

Examples:

CARRERAS DE ODRIOZOLA, A. (1985): «Gasto Nacional Bruto y formación de capital en España, 1849-1958: Primer ensayo de estimación», en P. Martín Aceña y L. Prados de la Escosura (dirs.), La nueva historia económica en España. Madrid: Tecnos, pp. 17-51.

BECKER, G.S. (1976): «An Economic Analysis of Fertility», en The Economic Approach to Human Behavior. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 171-194.

  • In the case of working papers, unpublished doctoral theses and other unpublished works, the title should be written in normal typeface in quotation marks. The reference should continue with the place, followed by a colon and the institution. Doctoral theses should be identified as such and in the case of working papers, if there is a number it should be mentioned.
  • Finally, in the case of conferences and papers given at congresses or similar events, the same process as that applied to chapters from books will be followed in cases where the proceedings have been published. If the proceedings have not been published, the following information should be included after the title of the work: conference [paper] presented at [full title of the congress, including location and date]; if the intervention was included in a bound volume or volumes of pre-congress proceedings with numbered pages, the volume number and the numbers of the first and last pages should be indicated.

Once more it should be highlighted that the bibliography should be comprehensive; each entry must include all the necessary elements depending on the type of contribution. It is assumed that this information has been adequately checked.